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Equipment 

Fully Equipped with Today's Equipment

The Avogadro Group's mobile lab is a state-of-the-art laboratory equipped with testing and monitoring equipment, including a dry extractive Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) System. Each system has been built for application to specific sources (i.e. low-emission turbines, wood-fired boilers, high-moisture contents, multiple point, etc.). The CEM systems are designed for use with up to eight analyzers operating simultaneously while logging two-second data points. The systems usually include analyzers for oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and total and/or non-methane hydrocarbons.

The sample conditioning and delivery system includes components to extract a representative sample from the source, remove the moisture and particulate matter from the sample stream, and transport the sample to the analyzers. The primary components of this subsystem are:

  1. A quartz, titanium, stainless steel or glass probe - heated or insulated as necessary to avoid condensation,
  
  2. Sample filtration – filters located on the probe, pump, and prior to all of the analyzers for removal of particulate matter,
  
  3. Teflon tubing - connecting the probe to the sample conditioner and the sample conditioner to the analyzer manifold - heated or insulated as necessary to avoid condensation,
  
  4. Sample conditioners – glass or stainless steel flasks chilled to ultra-low temperatures for removal of the moisture from the sample gas stream,
  
  5. Vacuum pump - a leak-free pump with a Teflon diaphragm to transport the sample gas through the system,
  
  6. Sample manifold - a distribution system, constructed of Teflon tubing and minimal stainless parts, to direct sample gas to the analyzers, and
  
  7. Sample flow rate control - a series of rotameters, vacuum gauges and pressure gauges connected to the manifold used to maintain the appropriate sample flow rates.

The calibration gas system utilizes only EPA Protocol gases to verify the operation, linearity, and range settings of the electronic analyzers. The sample gas system allows for the introduction of the protocol gases to the analyzers either directly through the manifold (calibration error check - performed once daily) or through the sampling system (system bias check - performed with each run). The system was built to pass the most stringent QA/QC calibration tests in the source testing industry.

The electronic analyzers are rack mounted and are maintained in the mobile lab. The data recording and acquisition system is based on a digital system known as STRATA. It includes software for controlling the collection of calibration and emission monitoring data, and hardware for connection of the analyzer outputs to the recording system. Test results can be provided in three forms; on-site printouts of the digitized data, diskette recordings of the digitized data, and printouts of strip charts from the monitoring data.

Avogadro’s isokinetic equipment incorporates the latest advancements in flow control management and temperature consistency. Since large-scale toxics programs generally command a good number of equipment resources, Avogadro has set aside new control consoles, ovens, filter holders, impingers, Teflon sample line and probes for these applications. This is the case for low-emission sources as well. Equipment is constantly being renewed and upgraded to maintain a very high-level of QA/QC.

Avogadro has the capacity and experience to perform almost all of the source test methods on nearly all stationary sources. This includes the use of specialized equipment including particle-sizing heads, low-flow pumps and metering systems, water-cooled equipment, glassware needed to conduct toxics testing, onsite chemistry for analyses of various pollutants, and computers for on-site results. All of the equipment is tailored and prepared for each individual project.